考研英语历年真题下载(2009年英语一真题及答案)

2021-05-08 16:45:00 文章来源:专业课透明计划

 Section I Use of English

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are. 1 the fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer’s piece in the Science Times on Tuesday. Fruit flies who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly 2 to live shorter lives. This suggests that 3 bulbs burn longer, that there is an 4 in not being too terrifically bright.

  Intelligence, it 5 out, is a high-priced option. It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is slow 6 the starting line because it depends on learning — a gradual 7 — instead of instinct. Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they’ve apparently learned is when to 8 .

  Is there an adaptive value to 9 intelligence? That’s the question behind this new research. I like it. Instead of casting a wistful glance 10 at all the species we’ve left in the dust I.Q.-wise, it implicitly asks what the real 11 of our own intelligence might be. This is 12 the mind of every animal I’ve ever met.

  Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would 13 on humans if they had the chance. Every cat with an owner, 14 , is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning. we believe that 15 animals ran the labs, they would test us to 16 the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain. They would try to decide what intelligence in humans is really 17 , not merely how much of it there is. 18 , they would hope to study a 19 question: Are humans actually aware of the world they live in? 20 the results are inconclusive.

  1. [A] Suppose [B] Consider [C] Observe [D] Imagine

  2. [A] tended [B] feared [C] happened [D] threatened

  3. [A] thinner [B] stabler [C] lighter [D] dimmer

  4. [A] tendency [B] advantage [C] inclination [D] priority

  5. [A] insists on [B] sums up [C] turns out [D] puts forward

  6. [A] off [B] behind [C] over [D] along

  7. [A] incredible [B] spontaneous [C]inevitable [D] gradual

  8. [A] fight [B] doubt [C] stop [D] think

  9. [A] invisible [B] limited [C] indefinite [D] different

  10. [A] upward [B] forward [C] afterward [D] backward

  11. [A] features [B] influences [C] results [D] costs

  12. [A] outside [B] on [C] by [D] across

  13. [A] deliver [B] carry [C] perform [D] apply

  14. [A] by chance [B] in contrast [C] as usual [D] for instance

  15. [A] if [B] unless [C] as [D] lest

  16. [A] moderate [B] overcome [C] determine [D] reach

  17. [A] at [B] for [C] after [D] with

  18. [A] Above all [B] After all [C] However [D] Otherwise

  19. [A] fundamental [B] comprehensive [C] equivalent [D] hostile

  20. [A] By accident [B] In time [C] So far [D] Better still

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text1

  Habits are a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd,” William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the ever-changing 21st century, even the word “habit” carries a negative connotation.

  So it seems antithetical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel synaptic paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks.

  But don’t bother trying to kill off old habits; once those ruts of procedure are worn into the hippocampus, they’re there to stay. Instead, the new habits we deliberately ingrain into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads.

  “The first thing needed for innovation is a fascination with wonder,” says Dawna Markova, author of “The Open Mind” and an executive change consultant for Professional Thinking Partners. “But we are taught instead to ‘decide,’ just as our president calls himself ‘the Decider.’ ” She adds, however, that “to decide is to kill off all possibilities but one. A good innovational thinker is always exploring the many other possibilities.”

  All of us work through problems in ways of which we’re unaware, she says. Researchers in the late 1960 covered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. At puberty, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life.

  The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. “This breaks the major rule in the American belief system — that anyone can do anything,” explains M. J. Ryan, author of the 2006 book “This Year I Will...” and Ms. Markova’s business partner. “That’s a lie that we have perpetuated, and it fosters commonness. Knowing what you’re good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.” This is where developing new habits comes in.

  21. The view of Wordsworth habit is claimed by being

  A. casual B. familiar C. mechanical D. changeable.

  22. The researchers have discovered that the formation of habit can be

  A. predicted B. regulated C. traced D. guided

  23.” ruts”(in line one, paragraph 3) has closest meaning to

  A. tracks B. series C. characteristics D. connections

  24. Ms. Markova’s comments suggest that the practice of standard testing ?

  A, prevents new habits form being formed

  B, no longer emphasizes commonness

  C, maintains the inherent American thinking model

  D, complies with the American belief system

  25. Ryan most probably agree that

  A. ideas are born of a relaxing mind

  B. innovativeness could be taught

  C. decisiveness derives from fantastic ideas

  D. curiosity activates creative minds

  Text 2

  It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom – or at least confirm that he’s the kid’s dad. All he needs to do is shell our $30 for paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore – and another $120 to get the results.

  More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first become available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits. More than two dozen companies sell DNA tests Directly to the public , ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2500.

  Among the most popular : paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and latest rage a many passionate genealogists-and supports businesses that offer to search for a family’s geographic roots .

  Most tests require collecting cells by webbing saliva in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare DNA.

  But some observers are skeptical, “There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing,” says Trey Duster, a New York University sociologist. He notes that each individual has many ancestors-numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back. Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father’s line or mitochondrial DNA, which a passed down only from mothers. This DNA can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other great-great-grandparents.

  Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared. Databases used by some companies don’t rely on data collected systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects. This means that a DNA database may differ depending on the company that processes the results. In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation.

  26.In paragraphs 1 and 2 , the text shows PTK’s ___________.

  [A]easy availability

  [B]flexibility in pricing

  [C] successful promotion

  [D] popularity with households

  27. PTK is used to __________.

  [A]locate one’s birth place

  [B]promote genetic research

  [C] identify parent-child kinship

  [D] choose children for adoption

  28. Skeptical observers believe that ancestry testing fails to__________.

  [A]trace distant ancestors

  [B] rebuild reliable bloodlines

  [C] fully use genetic information

  [D] achieve the claimed accuracy

  29. In the last paragraph ,a problem commercial genetic testing faces is __________.

  [A]disorganized data collection

  [B] overlapping database building

  30. An appropriate title for the text is most likely to be__________.

  [A]Fors and Againsts of DNA testing

  [B] DNA testing and It’s problems

  [C]DNA testing outside the lab

  [D] lies behind DNA testing

  Text 3

  The relationship between formal education and economic growth in poor countries is widely misunderstood by economists and politicians alike progress in both area is undoubtedly necessary for the social, political and intellectual development of these and all other societies; however, the conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid economic development in poor countries is wrong. We are fortunate that is it, because new educational systems there and putting enough people through them to improve economic performance would require two or three generations. The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radical higher productivity and, as a result, radically higher standards of living.

  Ironically, the first evidence for this idea appeared in the United States. Not long ago, with the country entering a recessing and Japan at its pre-bubble peak. The U.S. workforce was derided as poorly educated and one of primary cause of the poor U.S. economic performance. Japan was, and remains, the global leader in automotive-assembly productivity. Yet the research revealed that the U.S. factories of Honda Nissan, and Toyota achieved about 95 percent of the productivity of their Japanese countere pants a result of the training that U.S. workers received on the job.

  More recently, while examing housing construction, the researchers discovered that illiterate, non-English- speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry’s work.

  What is the real relationship between education and economic development? We have to suspect that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education even when governments don’t force it. After all, that’s how education got started. When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10,000 years ago, they didn’t have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food. Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things.

  As education improved, humanity’s productivity potential, they could in turn afford more education. This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for the complex political systems required by advanced economic performance. Thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only with broader formal education. A lack of formal education, however, doesn’t constrain the ability of the developing world’s workforce to substantially improve productivity for the forested future. On the contrary, constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn’t developing more quickly there than it is.

  31. The author holds in paragraph 1 that the important of education in poor countries ___________.

  [A] is subject groundless doubts

  [B] has fallen victim of bias

  [C] is conventional downgraded

  [D] has been overestimated

  32. It is stated in paragraph 1 that construction of a new education system __________.

  [A]challenges economists and politicians

  [B]takes efforts of generations

  [C] demands priority from the government

  [D] requires sufficient labor force

  33.A major difference between the Japanese and U.S workforces is that __________.

  [A] the Japanese workforce is better disciplined

  [B] the Japanese workforce is more productive

  [C]the U.S workforce has a better education

  [D] ]the U.S workforce is more organize

  34. The author quotes the example of our ancestors to show that education emerged __________.

  [A] when people had enough time

  [B] prior to better ways of finding food

  [C] when people on longer went hung

  [D] as a result of pressure on government

  35. According to the last paragraph , development of education __________.

  [A] results directly from competitive environments

  [B] does not depend on economic performance

  [C] follows improved productivity

  [D] cannot afford political changes

  Text 4

  The most thoroughly studied in the history of the new world are the ministers and political leaders of seventeenth-century New England. According to the standard history of American philosophy, nowhere else in colonial America was “So much important attached to intellectual pursuits ” According to many books and articles, New England’s leaders established the basic themes and preoccupations of an unfolding, dominant Puritan tradition in American intellectual life.

  To take this approach to the New Englanders normally mean to start with the Puritans’ theological innovations and their distinctive ideas about the church-important subjects that we may not neglect. But in keeping with our examination of southern intellectual life, we may consider the original Puritans as carriers of European culture adjusting to New world circumstances. The New England colonies were the scenes of important episodes in the pursuit of widely understood ideals of civility and virtuosity.

  The early settlers of Massachusetts Bay included men of impressive education and influence in England. `Besides the ninety or so learned ministers who came to Massachusetts church in the decade after 1629,There were political leaders like John Winthrop, an educated gentleman, lawyer, and official of the Crown before he journeyed to Boston. There men wrote and published extensively, reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness.

  We should not forget , however, that most New Englanders were less well educated. While few crafts men or farmers, let alone dependents and servants, left literary compositions to be analyzed, The in thinking often had a traditional superstitions quality. A tailor named John Dane, who emigrated in the late 1630s, left an account of his reasons for leaving England that is filled with signs. sexual confusion, economic frustrations , and religious hope-all name together in a decisive moment when he opened the Bible, told his father the first line he saw would settle his fate, and read the magical words: “come out from among them, touch no unclean thing , and I will be your God and you shall be my people.” One wonders what Dane thought of the careful sermons explaining the Bible that he heard in puritan churched.

  Mean while , many settles had slighter religious commitments than Dane’s, as one clergyman learned in confronting folk along the coast who mocked that they had not come to the New world for religion . “Our main end was to catch fish. ”

  36. The author notes that in the seventeenth-century New England___________.

  [A] Puritan tradition dominated political life.

  [B] intellectual interests were encouraged.

  [C] Politics benefited much from intellectual endeavors.

  [D] intellectual pursuits enjoyed a liberal environment.

  37. It is suggested in paragraph 2 that New Englanders__________.

  [A] experienced a comparatively peaceful early history.

  [B] brought with them the culture of the Old World

  [C] paid little attention to southern intellectual life

  [D] were obsessed with religious innovations

  38. The early ministers and political leaders in Massachusetts Bay__________.

  [A] were famous in the New World for their writings

  [B] gained increasing importance in religious affairs

  [C] abandoned high positions before coming to the New World

  [D] created a new intellectual atmosphere in New England

  39. The story of John Dane shows that less well-educated New Englanders were often __________.

  [A] influenced by superstitions

  [B] troubled with religious beliefs

  [C] puzzled by church sermons

  [D] frustrated with family earnings

  40. The text suggests that early settlers in New England__________.

  [A] were mostly engaged in political activities

  [B] were motivated by an illusory prospect

  [C] came from different backgrounds.

  [D] left few formal records for later reference

  Part B

  Directions:

  Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions (41-45), choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution. Spencer argued that all worldly phenomena, including human societies, changed over time, advancing toward perfection. 41.____________.

  American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in the late 1800s. Morgan, along with Tylor, was one of the founders of modern anthropology. In his work, he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies.42._____________.

  In the early 1900s in North America, German-born American anthropologist Franz Boas developed a new theory of culture known as historical particularism. Historical particularism, which emphasized the uniqueness of all cultures, gave new direction to anthropology. 43._____________ .

  Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture. 44._______________.

  Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology, largely through the influence of many students of Boas. But a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. Some attributed virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few, especially gifted peoples that, according to diffusionists, then spread to other cultures. 45.________________.

  Also in the early 1900s, French sociologist ?mile Durkheim developed a theory of culture that would greatly influence anthropology. Durkheim proposed that religious beliefs functioned to reinforce social solidarity. An interest in the relationship between the function of society and culture—known as functionalism—became a major theme in European, and especially British, anthropology.

  [A] Other anthropologists believed that cultural innovations, such as inventions, had a single origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism.

  [B] In order to study particular cultures as completely as possible, Boas became skilled in linguistics, the study of languages, and in physical anthropology, the study of human biology and anatomy.

  [C] He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the “survival of the fittest,” in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger, more advanced races and societies.

  [D] They also focused on important rituals that appeared to preserve a people’s social structure, such as initiation ceremonies that formally signify children’s entrance into adulthood.

  [E] Thus, in his view, diverse aspects of culture, such as the structure of families, forms of marriage, categories of kinship, ownership of property, forms of government, technology, and systems of food production, all changed as societies evolved.

  [F]Supporters of the theory viewed as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep a society functioning.

  [G] For example, British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry incorrectly suggested, on the basis of inadequate information, that farming, pottery making, and metallurgy all originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world. In fact, all of these cultural developments occurred separately at different times in many parts of the world.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  There is a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association.46It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. 47Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.

  But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance.48 While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. 49Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.

  50 We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education -- that of direct tuition or schooling. In undeveloped social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to their group.

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Restrictions on the use of plastic bags have not been so successful in some regions. “White pollution ”is still going on. Write a letter to the editor(s) of your local newspaper to

  1) give your opinions briefly and

  2) make two or three suggestions

  You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address.

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain its intended meaning, and then

  3) give your comments.

  You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  

\
  Section I Use of English

  答案解析:

  1. B.本题考查动词,后面的宾语是“the fruit-fly experiments described…”, suppose表示“假设”, observe表示“观察”,image表示“想象”, Consider“考虑”,代入文中表示“考虑已经被描述出来的实验”,符合语境。

  2. A.本题考查动词短语,happen to(碰巧),fear to(唯恐…),be threatened to被恐吓…。tend to do表示“有…倾向,往往…”,代入文中表示比较聪明的果蝇往往寿命较短。

  3. D.本题考查形容词, lighter更轻的,thinner更瘦的,stabler更稳定的,dimmer比较暗淡的,本句是前一句推出的结论,即由“果蝇越聪明寿命越短”推出 “灯泡越暗使用时间越长”。

  4. B.本题考查名词。由前半句“灯泡越暗使用时间越长”推出“这是不特别亮的灯泡的一个优点”。tendency倾向,advantage优势,inclination倾向,priority优先权。

  5. C.本题考查动词短语,turns out证明是,insist on坚持,sum up总结,put forward提出。

  6. A.本题考查介词, off表示离开。代入文中表示离开起点时。

  7. D.incredible难以置信的,spontaneous自发的,inevitable不可避免的,gradual渐进的。学习是一个渐进的过程,所以选gradual.

  8. C.本文的主旨是智力需要昂贵的代价。大量的物种会学习,但它们首先学会的是知道什么时候停止学习,与上文的例子灯泡呼应。四个选项中, fight表示斗争,doubt表示怀疑,stop表示停止,think表示思考,正确答案为C

  9. B.本题考查形容词,修饰intelligence。 invisible看不见的, indefinite不确定的,这两个选项意思不符合,排除。different不同的,limited有限的。因为所有物种的智力都是有限的,所以limited符合文意。

  10.D.cast a glance backward“回顾”,固定搭配。

  11.D.feature特征,influence影响,result结果,cost代价。Cost“代价”与文中“事实证明,智力是要付出代价”相呼应。

  12.B.本题考查介词,on the mind of“为…着想”,by the mind“通过思考”,outside和across不与mind的搭配。

  13.C.本题考查动词,与之搭配的宾语是experiments ,选项中perform能与experiments 搭配,表示“做实验”。deliver递送,carry运送, apply应用。

  14.D.前一句提到experiments,本句提到一个具体的实验,所以选for instance例如。by chance偶然,in contrast相反,as usual照常。

  15.A.由后半句中they would test us to可推测本句使用了虚拟语气,选项中if可以引导虚拟条件句。 unless除非,as正如,lest唯恐。

  16.C.本题考查动词。所填动词表明实验的目的,并且所填动词的宾语是limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain ,选项中“determine确定”符合题意,并与下文的decide相呼应。moderate适中的,overcome克服, reach达到。

  17.B.本题考查介词,四个选项中for 表示表示目的,这个句子的正常句序是intelligence in humans is really for what.

  18.A.本题考查逻辑关系。这个句子位于段末,显然起到总结性的作用。四个选项中,Above all最重要,After all毕竟,However然而,Otherwise否则,故选Above all。

  19.A.本题考查形容词,修饰question 。fundamental基本的,comprehensive的,equivalent相等的,hostile敌对的。由句后问题的内容可推出这是一个最基本和重要的问题,所以选fundamental。

  20.C.本题考查副词。空前说“想研究这个问题”,空后说“结果还不确定”。四个选项中,By accident“偶然”,In time“及时”,So far“到目前为止”,Better still“更好的是”,只有So far符合语意。

  全文翻译:

  对动物智力的研究总是让我们思考人类到底有多聪明。参考下卡尔齐默周二发表在科学时代刊物上的文章所描述的果蝇试验。有些果蝇比普通果蝇聪明,但是寿命较短。这表明暗淡的灯泡使用时间更长,也表明暗淡是灯泡的一个优势。

  事实证明,智力是要付出昂贵的代价。它需要更高的给养、消耗更多的燃料,因为智力依靠的是学习(一个循序渐进的过程)而不是一种本能,所以离开起点时缓慢。许多其他的物种也有学习能力,很显然他们学到的东西之一就是知道何时停止。

  有限的智力是否有适应值呢?这也是此项研究的课题。我对此很感兴趣。这个试验不是去回顾那些被我们划为低智商的物种,而是含蓄在问我们自己智力的真正代价是什么。我们所遇到的每种动物的想法。

  对动物智力的研究也让我想,如果动物有机会的话,他们会对人类作什么样的实验。比如说,每只有主人的猫都在进行一个小型的操作性条件反射研究。我们认为如果动物也能进行试验的话,他们会测定我们的忍耐度,忠诚度,以及对地形的记忆力。他们会试图判定人类智力的实际用处,而不仅仅是判定人类智力的高低。最重要的是他们希望研究一个最基本的问题:人类是否真正意识到了自己所生存的世界?对此,目前仍无定论。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Text 1

  21【C】事实细节题。意为:Wordsworth认为以何种方式便能获得

  文章第二句中提到We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and

  relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine.我们在无意识的状态下就能行成,使

  们的头脑处于自动导 航,放松地进入一种无意识的惯性当中。从这个表述中可以看出习惯的

  形成过程完全是一种无意状态下的机械活动。

  22.【D】事实细节题。意为:研究者发现习惯的形成可以被

  第二段第二句当中指出当人们有意识的培养新的习惯时,我们就创造出一种相关的轨迹,甚至是全新的脑细胞,这可以使我们的思想进入一个创新的轨道上。由此可见研究人员认为习惯的形成是可以被引导的。

  23.【A】词义句义题。意为:“ruts”的意思最贴近于

  A 痕迹 B 系列 C 特点 D 联系

  原文提到:不要试图摆脱你的旧习惯;一旦这个过程的 进入大脑,它们就会留在脑中。根据上下文逻辑最合上下文语境的为A选项。

  由于24、25题题干不清晰暂不做出解析。

  24.【A】事实细节题。

  25.【A】事实细节题。

  Text 2

  26.【A】推理判断题。 意为:从第一二段文章表明PTK很容易买到。

  文中第一二段有多处体现,首段最后一句话“只需花30美元在地方药房作亲子鉴定……”.第二段第一句我们可以看到 “自从去年不需要处方即购可买之后,己经超过6万人购买了PTK ”。甚至从第二段整段我们可以看出:B项关于鉴定价格浮动只在第二段最后一句有所体现。C项文中未提到。D项属过度推断。

  27.【C】事实细节题。 意为:PTK是用来鉴定亲子关系的。

  从文中第三段可以看到“被收养的孩子可以通过亲子鉴定找到他具有血缘关系的亲属”。A选项比较具有迷惑性,从第三段后半句我们可以看出“PTK最近惹怒了很多谱系学家,他们支持用PTK来探寻一个家族的祖藉”。可以看出PTK没有主要被用来寻找一个人的出生地。选项B,D文中未提及。

  28. 【D】事实细节题。意为:持怀疑态度的观察者认为祖先鉴定没有达到声称的准确性。

  从题干信息我们可以将它定位到文中第五段第一句我们可以看出: 那些正在做祖先鉴定的人们所宣扬的(祖先鉴定)精确度其实是错的。这句话是对这一段的概括,ABC三个选项都只是它的细节之一。因此,D选项正确。

  29.【A】事实细节题。意为:最后一段中商业基因鉴定面临的一个问题是数椐收集的紊乱。

  从最后一段第二句我们可以看出“一些公司使用的数据库并不依赖于系统的数据收集而是把不同研究机构收集的信息合在一起。这就意味着处理数据的公司不同,所用DNA数据库也会不同。”文中并未提及数据是否重合,B无根椐。CD文中没有体现。

  30.【B】主旨大意题。 意为:本文最合适的题目应是DNA测试及它存在的问题。

  A选项中 “DNA测试的赞成与反对”从文中我们看不到作者有明显赞成DNA测试的倾向,C选项,文中没有特别强调实验室内外的问题。D选项“DNA测试背后的谎言”, 作者只是客观地提出了DNA测试存在的不准确性问题,但并没有指明是哪些人的谎言。

  Text 3

  31.【D】推理判断题目。意为:在第一段作者认为在贫困国家教育的重要性被高估了。

  作者在首段指出“传统的观点认为在贫困国家对促进经济的快速发展而言,教育是极应优先考虑的要素之一,这是种错误的看法。”教育的优先性和教育的重要性实际上是一个意思,而既然文中说优先教育是种错误的看法,由此可推出教育的重要性被过度的重视了即被高估了,因此D正确。

  32.【B】事实细节题。意为:第一段表明建立新的教育体系需要几代人的努力。

  在第一段作者主要谈论了靠优先发展教育来促进经济发展是错误的看法,而世界各国的工人经过了劳动培训可以获取高产量进而带来更高的生活水平。解答细节题时同样明显背离中心的选项可首先排除,即先可排除A,C;在依据第一段的倒数第二句可知:通过教育体系来使足够多的人能提高经济能力将需要两三代人。由此可知建立教育体系在当前是不可能,而这种建立需要几代人的努力才能实现。

  33.【B】事实细节题。意为:日本和美国劳动力的主要区别是日本的劳动力更多产。

  解答本题可用运排除法。依据文章的第二段,美国劳动力受教育程度差遭到嘲笑并被认为是其经济表现差的原因之一。美国工人接受了职业培训后,本田、丰田的美国公司才达到了日本95%的产量,由此可知日本工人的生产力比美国工人的生产力高。从文中可知,美国劳动力受教育程度差是个事实也是美国经济表现差的重要原因,由此可排除不符合文意的C选项;而A,D的信息在文中未提及,由此可得出只有B正确,而依据文意,既然日本保持了汽车产量的全球领先地位,自然日本的劳动力比美国的劳力更多产也验证了B为正确答案。

  34.【A】推理判断题。意为:作者引用了我们祖先的例子来表明当人们有了充裕的时间时,教育才出现。

  依据文章倒数第二段的最后两句可知,作者举出了我们祖先的例子是来论证最后一句话得出的观点:只有当人们有了更高产的获得食物的方式时,人们才有时间做其它事情。由此可推知,教育是获得食物以外的其它事情,而受教育的前提是人们有剩余时间,由此可知A为正确答案。

  35.【C】主旨大意题。意为:教育的发展受约于产量的提高。

  文章在最后一段针对上文讨论的教育和生产的关系做出了总结。在本段作者明确指出缺乏正规的教育并不能限制发展极大提高产量的世界劳动力,而反之,对提高产量的限制得以解释了为什么教育发展得没有那么快。由此可见,提高产量优先于发展教育,故C为正确答案。而A,D的表达不符合文章的中心;B项的意思和文意相反。

  Text 4

  36.【B】事实细节题目。意为:作者认为在17世纪的新英格兰 。

  B为正确选项。A选项为原文的篡改。C选项从原文的表述中无法推出。D选项文章中没有提到“对于知识的追求享有自由的环境”

  37.【B】推理判断题。意为:第二段中暗示出新到达英格兰的人

  B为正确选项,新到达清教徒带着旧世界的文化。些段中的第二句提到,we may consider the original Puritans as carriers of European culture……,选项中的New Englanders对应文中的Puritans, brought with them the culture of the Old World对应该文章中的carriers of European culture,故此选项为此句中的同义替换。

  38.【D】事实细节题。意为:早期到达马萨诸赛海湾的牧师和政治领导人

  D为正确选项为新英格兰创造了新的知识环境。对应第三段中的最后一句话There men wrote and publish ed extensively, reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness. A选项中in the new world缩小了原文所表述的范围,B选项在文章中没有提到,C选项不够。帮D为正确答案。

  39.【A】例证题。意为:关于John Dane的故事表明受教育较少的新英格兰人 。

  A为正确选项举例是为了说明文中的观点,由文章第四段可知,观点为their thinking often had a traditional superstitions quality,所以在四个选项中只有A选项和文章的观点最为符合。

  40.【C】推断题。意为:从文章中可以看出到新英格兰的早期的定居者 。

  C为正确选项,能过全文可看出来到英语兰早期的定居者,有政客、牧师、裁缝还有渔由此可见早期的定居者背景多种多样。

  Part B

  一.文章结构分析

  本文是一篇文化类的文章,主要讲的是文化发展过程中的各种关于文化的理论。

  第一段讲的是Herbert Spencer的“生物和文化进化理论”。

  第二段讲的是Lewis Henry Morgan的“文化进化理论”。

  第三段可以看到,Franz Boas提出了一种“历史特殊论(historical particularism)”,它强调所有文化的唯一性。

  第四段还是讲了Franz Boas的理论。

  第五段我们除了看到“历史特殊论(historical particularism)”外,还看到一种“diffusionism”理论和“diffusionists”这一种人。

  第六段,?mile Durkheim提出了一种文化理论,他认为宗教信仰有助于加强社会团结。

  二.试题具体解析

  通过分析文章我们可以看到,文章就是围绕着这几种理论展开讨论的,文章层次很清晰,

  而空格出现的位置一律都是段落的末尾,这样我们可以分析,所有的选项内容应该与段落前面的内容有密切的联系。

  我们先大体浏览一下各个选项的内容。

  选项A主要介绍了什么叫“diffusionism”, 即它认为文化的革新有一个唯一的起源,并且在社会之间传递。因为第5段出现了diffusionism,所以我们可以判断,选项A肯定出现在44题之前。而且other anthropologists的出现提示,前文可能出现了anthropologist这一词,那我们回到原文中找各个人的职业,就可以看到整篇文章提出的4个主要理论家中,只有Lewis Henry Morgan和Franz Boas的职业是anthropologist,所以,我们暂时把答案A锁定在42和43之间。

  选项B的大体意思是:为了尽可能的了解特殊的文化,(particular cultures是关键词),他对语言学和身体人类学都很熟悉。回到文章,我们在第3段找到了the uniqueness of all cultures, 我们可以断定,这个选项中的he指的就是Franz Boas。那Boas在第3段和第4段都出现过,所以我们把选项B锁定在43和44。

  选项C的意思是,人类的进化有这样一个特征,就是“survival of the fittest”适者生存,并且解释了种族和社会的适者生存观念。因为第一段讲的是Herbert Spencer的“生物和文化进化理论”。并且出现了Charles Darwin,我们都知道Charles Darwin提出了生物界的适者生存,而这里说人类社会的进化也有适者生存这一特征,所以,我们可以首先确定41的答案是选项C。

  选项D的关键词是important rituals重要的礼仪和initiation ceremonies和一些典礼,我们在文章中并没有发现有这方面的内容,所以暂且搁置。

  选项E说,在他看来,不同方面的文化diverse aspects of culture,例如……,随着社会的进化都改变了。我们在读文章的时候,一定要把每一段的关键词划出来,以利于和选项中的关键词对应。读第二段的时候,文章说,在他的作品里,他尽量说明了how aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies. 这跟选项E的内容不谋而合。所以,我们可以断定,42题的答案为选项E。因为前面把答案A锁定在42和43之间,而42题的答案为选项E,所以确定选项A为43题的答案。确定了43题答案为A,因为之前我们把选项B锁定在43和44,所以排出了43,我们把选项B锁定在44题。
在选项F中,我们可以看到关键字起作用,该关键字出现在第6段中,因此我们暂时将其放在一旁。

选项G是一个示例。 如果是答案,则应使用它来补充先前的观点。 它说,由于缺乏信息,两位人类学家提出农业等起源于古埃及,并传播到世界各地。 实际上,所有这些文化发展都是在世界不同时期,不同时期分别发生的。 通过分析此示例,我们可以知道这是两种不同观点的比较。 在第五段中,除了“历史特殊性”之外,我们还看到了一种“扩散论”理论和“扩散论者”。 碰巧是这两种理论的比较,因此我们可以轻松地找到选项G的问题45的答案。
  这样我们初步确定了答案,41的答案是选项C,42题的答案为选项E,43题的答案为选项A,44题的答案为选项B,45题的答案定位到选项G。

  最后代入选项,通读全文,检查文章逻辑顺序和流畅程度。

  Part C

  46. 本句考点:宾语从句,of 短语作定语,代词指代, but引导并列句

  结构分析:句子主干是:it may be said that…, but this effect… its effect及its original motive.中it在句中指代social institution。

  参考译文:可以说,任何社会制度的价值在于它对扩大和改进经验方面的影响,但是这种影响并不是它原来的动机的一部分。

  47. 本句考点:强调句,分词结构作后置定语, 省略

  结构分析:强调句的正常语序是:the by-product of the institution was noted Only gradually, and this effect …was only still more gradually (noted). considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution作this effect的后置定语。

  参考译文:一种制度的副产品,只是逐步被注意到的,而这种效果被视为实施这种制度的一个指导性因素更加缓慢得多。

  48. 本句考点:比较状语从句,动宾分隔

  结构分析:本句主干是while引导的一个比较状语从句。in our contact with 作为一个插入成分,分隔了ignore和它的宾语the effect of…。

  参考译文:在和他们(年轻人)接触的时候,虽然容易忽略我们的行动对他们的倾向的影响,但是也不像与成年人打交道那么简单。

  49. 本句考点:since引导的原因状语从句,代词指代,宾语从句,宾语从句嵌套定语从句。

  结构分析:本句主干是Since… we cannot help considering…其中whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability作cannot help considering的宾语,which will secure this ability作为嵌套定语从句修饰the powers。

  参考译文:既然我们的主要任务在于使年轻人参与共同生活,我们禁不住考虑我们是否在形成获得这种能力的力量。

  50. 本句考点:插入语,定语从句,同位语从句

  结构分析:within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering 作为插入语,which we have been so far considering为定语从句修饰process,本句主干是:We are thus led to distinguish a more formal kind of education. that of direct tuition or schooling与a more formal kind of education 是同位语关系。

  参考译文:因此,我们可以在上面所考虑的广阔的教育过程之内区别出一种比较正规的教育,即直接的教导或学校教育。

  Section III Writing

  51.
2009年的论文要求撰写推荐信,该推荐信比2007年的推荐信更为具体和熟悉。候选人可以就该主题写更多信。此外,候选人在训练通常的大型作品时,尤其是在环境保护措施方面,接触了许多表达意见和提出建议的方法。因此,这种小组成的主题是每个人都非常熟悉的,难度适中。 。

52。

2009年的主要写作仍然是绘画作品,主题要求与往年基本相同。编写此构图有两个主要要点:首先,描述图片。图片描述可能会给某些应聘者带来困难,具体取决于学生的日常积累。其次,它意味着理解。标题图片看似简单,但实际上是抽象的。揭示主题应与中文提示“网络的近端和远端”相结合,即网络给人们的生活带来的便利和不便。这个话题更接近现代生活,也是当今大学生所熟悉的话题:尽管互联网非常便利,人们可以不离开家而彼此交流,但是人与人之间的直接联系变得稀缺。

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希望能帮到正在考研的你。